Tuesday, 11 June 2013



Welding Questions:
1)      Differentiate between TIG and MIG welding? Explain their working with the help of neat sketches.
2)      Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of TIG welding over MIG welding. Give any three examples where TIG welding is used.
3)      Sketch different types of Ox y- Acetylene flames and explain the importance and applications of each.
4)      Draw a neat diagram of Arc – Welding and explain its working. List out its advantages over gas welding method.
5)      What do you understand by under-water welding? Explain the working of such method and list out the extra care to be taken compared with conventional welding.
6)      What is the main function of the flux? Name the materials used a s flux and list out the important properties of a good flux.
7)      Describe and differentiate between TIG and MIG welding methods with neat sketches and explain their workings. List our the advantages, limitations and applications of each welding method.
8)      How brazing is different from gas welding? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages over gas welding.
9)      What are the different types of resistance welding? Describe the working of any one method.
10)  Why welding electrodes are coated? Mention the materials used for coating and their special properties required.
11)  Differentiate between brazing and soldering and give any three uses of each.
12)  Explain the working of gas welding method with the help of neat diagram. Give any two industrial examples where gas welding is more preferable than other welding methods.
13)   List out the defects associated with gas welding method and suggest the method to avoid them.
14)  What do you understand by under water welding? Repeat the earlier question.
15)  Explain the principle of resistance welding and explain its working with the help of neat sketch.
16)  List out the advantages of resistance welding over arc and gas welding.
17)  Give any five any five applications of resistance welding and mention why this welding is preferred?.
18)  Differentiate between TIG and MIG welding with the help of neat diagrams. Describe the working of any one with the help of neat sketch. Name any three parts which can be manufactured with the help of TIG welding.
19)  Mention any three defects of welded joints and explain the methods of their detection.
20)  What are different types of resistance welding? Describe the working of any one method.
21)  Why welding electrodes are coated? Mention the materials used for coating and their special properties required.
22)  Differentiate between brazing and soldering and give an three uses of each.
23)  Describe the principle and operation of resistance welding with the help of neat sketch.
24)  Discuss the advantage and disadvantages of resistance welding over arc welding. Give three examples where resistance welding is only used.
25)  Sketch any 3 different types of joints which are welded by arc welding.

Tuesday, 4 June 2013

Question and answers (Section B - TQM)

1.What is strategic quality planning?

Strategic Quality planning means that the quality processes are planned in a way that it helps the company to achieve its strategic objectives. The Planning here is not done to achieve routine
production targets or to dispatch goods as per the agreed contractual terms but planning goes beyond the routine activities intended to run the business. Strategic Quality planning involves the activities for a new product introduction to its servicing in a comprehensive manner.
The product’s features are defined by discussions with customer groups and the prioritisation of what features are to be incorporated is decided through a Quality Function Deployment exercise. Then the features and characteristics are designed by the design team. Though the design function is responsible for the design the review is done by a cross functional team and with tools like Failure Mode Effect analysis.

Then, critical processes are identified and the people are trained in the skills required. The monitoring of the performance of the new product in the field is done to verify whether the customers are getting the value for the money and whether the product is reliable.
Thus strategic Quality planning is an activity that extends from collection of customer requirements to customer satisfaction determination.

2. What do you understand by quality circles?

Quality Circles are the small groups which are formed voluntarily by workers or employees of a
specific location to carry out systematic improvements. QC Circle movement started in Japan in 50s and spread to all the countries. Some of the unique features of QC Circles are a) the voluntary nature of the circles b) the meetings held weekly outside the office hours c) the use of 7 QC Tools to solve the problems. Each circle takes about 3 to 4 weeks to solve a problem which may something to do with poor housekeeping or erratic machine and then present the solutions to the management.

All countries including India hold annual contests for encouraging the Quality Circles. Apart from

workers, many companies even encourage their staff and managers to take part in Quality circles.

3.What is bench marking? Link the various factors that have impact on customer satisfaction through quality process.

Benchmarking is the process by which one organization learns the best practices of another
organization which is better than itself in some of the processes. Benchmarking is widely adopted in
all countries and in some of the well known companies like Xerox.
Benchmarking consists of the following steps.
1. Map the process you are interested in benchmarking.
2. Identify the key Characteristics in the process which are to be improved.
3. Identify the partners who are good at these processes
4. Visit the partners and observe the processes at close quarters.
5. Adapt or adopt the process to suit at your end.

The various factors that have impact on customer satisfaction through Quality process are as follows:
1. Achieving Conformance of product /service to specifications which is ensured by the design.
2. Achieving reliability of the product which is ensured by the process capability.
3. Timely delivery which is a result of meticulous planning and coordination.
4. Aesthetic packing which is due to packing quality.
5. Clear user manual and service attention in case of problems
6. Hazard free operation which is built in by the safety in design.
Quality process enables these to happen with the help of a) Team work across the functions b)
Ensuring Process capability c) Monitoring the process with the help of control charts
By the Quality process which flows through all operations leading to the supply of the product or

delivery of service we are able to improve the customer satisfaction steadily.

4. Describe “Poka Yoke” .

“Poka Yoke” means “Error Proofing” in Japanese language and it is adopted to eliminate defects on line due to carelessness of employees.

For example, a worker may forget to put on the safety guard or tighten the screws of a lid thus
causing major problem. This is due to error and not due to any other problem. Since it is not possible to avoid this possibility of error and mistakes Japanese companies started error proofing the operation or activity. Toyota practiced it in large scale and became known for its defect free products.

To do “Poka Yoke”, the operation is observed and with the involvement of the operator and others,

various possibilities are examined in order to eliminate the possibility of mistake occurring.
For example, in an operation if it is observed that operator may forget to fill up the right quantity of brake fluid then, it is discussed how the operation can be made error free.

The alternatives to make the operation error free are
1. Can the process be eliminated?
2. Can it be automated?
3. Can there be a guide or a tool which will make the operator to know that he has filled the
correct amount?
4. Can the warning go on in case the quantity is short of the requirements?
5. Can the product stop if the quantity is not Ok at that spot and not e released till the quantity is right?

Through these discussions and brain storming, suitable devices are incorporated in the process to

make it error proof.

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (Section B - TQM) - 10 marks

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award was established in 1987, when Congress
passed the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act. The award is named after
the former Secretary of Commerce,Malcolm Baldrige, and is intended to reward and
stimulate quality initiatives. It is designed to recognize companies that establish and
demonstrate high quality standards. The award is given to no more than two companies
in each of three categories: manufacturing, service, and small business. Past winners include
Motorola Corporation, Xerox, FedEx, 3M, IBM, and the Ritz-Carlton.

To compete for the Baldrige Award, companies must submit a lengthy application,
which is followed by an initial screening. Companies that pass this screening move to
the next step, in which they undergo a rigorous evaluation process conducted by certified
Baldrige examiners. The examiners conduct site visits and examine numerous
company documents. They base their evaluation on seven categories, which are
shown in Figure 5-11. Let’s look at each category in more detail.
The first category is leadership. Examiners consider commitment by top management,
their effort to create an organizational climate devoted to quality, and their active involvement
in promoting quality. They also consider the firm’s orientation toward meeting customer
needs and desires, as well as those of the community and society as a whole.

The second category is strategic planning. The examiners look for a strategic plan
that has high quality goals and specific methods for implementation. The next category,
customer and market focus, addresses how the company collects market and customer
information. Successful companies should use a variety of tools toward this
end, such as market surveys and focus groups. The company then needs to demonstrate
how it acts on this information.
The fourth category is information and analysis. Examiners evaluate how the company
obtains data and how it acts on the information. The company needs to demonstrate
how the information is shared within the company as well as with other parties,
such as suppliers and customers.
The fifth and sixth categories deal with management of human resources and
management of processes, respectively. These two categories together address the issues
of people and process. Human resource focus addresses issues of employee involvement.
This entails continuous improvement programs, employee training, and
functioning of teams. Employee involvement is considered a critical element of quality.
Similarly, process management involves documentation of processes, use of tools
for quality improvement such as statistical process control, and the degree of process
integration within the organization.
The last Baldrige category receives the highest points and deals with business
results. Numerous measures of performance are considered, from percentage of defective
items to financial and marketing measures. Companies need to demonstrate progressive
improvement in these measures over time, not only a one-time improvement.
The Baldrige criteria have evolved from simple award criteria to a general framework
for quality evaluation. Many companies use these criteria to evaluate their own
performance and set quality targets even if they are not planning to formally compete
for the award.